Explan:past participle - active

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The past participle - active is a type of verbal adjective; that is a word which functions as an adjective, but is derived from a verbal root.

Derivation[edit | edit source]

The Active Past Participle also called the Perfect Participle Active are a rare set of past participles formed by adding -vā or -vī (from the possessive -vat/-vant & -vin) to the past participle stem itself, which then become specifically active in meaning.

The past participle passive stems end as follows:

-ta,
-gga, -tta, -ttha, -ddha, -nta or -ḷha,

As these are rare I believe only the endings formed from -ta need to be considered. So theoretically at least, we get the following Perfect Participle Active bases endings with -vā:

-tavā,
-ggavā, -ttavā, -tthavā, -ddhavā, -ntavā or -ḷhavā,

So for instance:

Root. P. P. P. Base P. P. A. Base
√pac, to cook, pacita, cooked, pacitavā, having cooked.
√bhuj, to eat, bhutta, eaten, bhuttavā, having eaten.
√kar, to do, kata, made, katavā, having made.


  • Past Participle Active formation
    Pali past participle
    • Adjective -at-ant suffix
    • Pali particple -in
    • Pali particple -vāt-vānt
    • Pali particple -avin

These bases then decline, in -vā, like adjectives in -vat/-vant (masc. & neut.) & -vatī/-vantī (fem).
See See Duroiselle $465 & declension of guṇavā $229

And when the participles are formed with the suffix -vī (from -vin), the -a- before the -vī is lengthened to -āvin.

-tāvī,
-ggāvī, -ttāvī, -tthāvī, -ddhāvī, -ntāvī or -ḷhāvī,

And in -vī, they decline like adjectives in -ī (-in). See Duroiselle $205 & $231.