Explan:future passive participle

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There is what is sometime called the Future passive participle (F.P.P.) which may also be referred to as:

the Participle of necessity,
the Potential participle or
the Gerundive (not to be confused with the gerund).

The Future passive participle, although usually called a participle, is actually closer to the gerundive in Latin. There is no true equivalent to the gerundive in English; but the meaning is generally not simply future but rather imperative or optative : "this must be done", "this should be done"; thus conveying a sense of obligation.

Like past participles they can act as verbs (especially when the infix -tabba or -(y)ya is used), adjectives (especially when the infix -anīya is used), or as nouns (in neuter only). Like all participles they agree in number, gender and case with their subject.

Derivation[edit | edit source]

And, although it is called a future participle it is not formed on the future stem, but by adding to a root the infixes: -tabba; -(y)ya; or -anīya, in the following way. See Duroiselle #466

Roots ending in i, ī, change to e,
Roots in u, ū change to -avi,
Pali future passive participle
  • The infix -tabba is the most common. It is added:
    • Directly to roots ending in a vowel,
    • To roots ending in a consonant, it may be joined by means of a connecting vowel i (-itabba-),
    • or added directly to roots ending in a consonant, where the initial t of -tabba is assimilated.
  • The infix -anīya is added directly to the root,
  • The infix -(i)ya is added as follows,
    • in a few cases, -ya is joined to the root by means of vowel i (-iya-),
    • After roots ending in -ā, i, or ī the initial y of ya is doubled and the root strengthened to e (-eyya-),
    • more often the initial -y becomes assimilated to the last consonant of the root.
  • A few verb roots take -taya, -tāya, -thāya & -teyya
  • Present stems have -itabba added


For Example:

√ji, → je → jetabba;
√bhū, → bhav → bhavitabba, bhavanīya;
√bhuj, → bhoj-ya → bhojja;
√ji, → je-ya → jeyya;
√dā, → dātabba
√pac, → pacitabba
√bhuj, → bhoj-ya → bhojja
√pac, → pacanīya or
√bhū, → bhava → bhavanīya
√kar, → kār → kāriya
√pā, → peyya
√jṇa, → ṇātaya, ṇāteyya
√drs, → daṭṭhāya,
√āp, → pattāyya, patteyya


Finally we can deduce the following F.P.P. base endings:

  • -tabba; -etabba; -itabba; -ggabba, -ttabba, -tthabba, -ddhabba, -ntabba or -ḷhabba,
  • -iya; -bba, -bbha, -cca, -ccha, -dda, -ddha, -gga, -ggha, -jja, -jjha, -kka, -kkha, -lla, -mma, -ñña, -ppa, -ppha, -ssa
  • -eyya; or
  • -anīya.


Once the F.P.P. base has been formed they are all declined like nouns in a/ā to agree in number, gender and case with their subject. See Duroiselle #120, Duroiselle #127, & Duroiselle #124