Explan:future passive participle
There is what is sometime called the Future passive participle (F.P.P.) which may also be referred to as:
- the Participle of necessity,
- the Potential participle or
- the Gerundive (not to be confused with the gerund).
The Future passive participle, although usually called a participle, is actually closer to the gerundive in Latin. There is no true equivalent to the gerundive in English; but the meaning is generally not simply future but rather imperative or optative : "this must be done", "this should be done"; thus conveying a sense of obligation.
Like past participles they can act as verbs (especially when the infix -tabba or -(y)ya is used), adjectives (especially when the infix -anīya is used), or as nouns (in neuter only). Like all participles they agree in number, gender and case with their subject.
Derivation[edit | edit source]
And, although it is called a future participle it is not formed on the future stem, but by adding to a root the infixes: -tabba; -(y)ya; or -anīya, in the following way. See Duroiselle #466
- Roots first undergo guṇation
- Roots ending in i, ī, change to e,
- Roots in u, ū change to -avi,
- The infix -tabba is the most common. It is added:
- Directly to roots ending in a vowel,
- To roots ending in a consonant, it may be joined by means of a connecting vowel i (-itabba-),
- or added directly to roots ending in a consonant, where the initial t of -tabba is assimilated.
- The infix -anīya is added directly to the root,
- The infix -(i)ya is added as follows,
- in a few cases, -ya is joined to the root by means of vowel i (-iya-),
- After roots ending in -ā, i, or ī the initial y of ya is doubled and the root strengthened to e (-eyya-),
- more often the initial -y becomes assimilated to the last consonant of the root.
- A few verb roots take -taya, -tāya, -thāya & -teyya
- Present stems have -itabba added
- √ji, → je → jetabba;
- √bhū, → bhav → bhavitabba, bhavanīya;
- √bhuj, → bhoj-ya → bhojja;
- √ji, → je-ya → jeyya;
- √dā, → dātabba
- √pac, → pacitabba
- √bhuj, → bhoj-ya → bhojja
- √pac, → pacanīya or
- √bhū, → bhava → bhavanīya
- √kar, → kār → kāriya
- √pā, → peyya
- √jṇa, → ṇātaya, ṇāteyya
- √drs, → daṭṭhāya,
- √āp, → pattāyya, patteyya
Finally we can deduce the following F.P.P. base endings:
- -tabba; -etabba; -itabba; -ggabba, -ttabba, -tthabba, -ddhabba, -ntabba or -ḷhabba,
- -iya; -bba, -bbha, -cca, -ccha, -dda, -ddha, -gga, -ggha, -jja, -jjha, -kka, -kkha, -lla, -mma, -ñña, -ppa, -ppha, -ssa
- -eyya; or